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They reveal internal consistencies and a constant theme. These messages, like so many others illuminated in my website, are not trivial examples produced easily from common anagrams. The words Rhetoric, Tetragrammatons and Channel occur once each. Cipher occurs three time, Transposed four while Label has eight occurrences. Paul’s is the most prevalent with 36 occurrences. The remaining longer words more than three letters occur between twenty and thirty times each. Their rarity is put in perspective by knowing Nostradamus’ Prophecies contain over lines, each with about 40 letters in them see my three papers on Anagram Research for more on this.. These messages show internal consistency. The meaning of this key gives relevance to the word ‘transposed’ as well as giving a context to Paul’s mortal matter. Saint Paul would have been very familiar with this biblical technique and may well have spent his life developing this idea in relation to Jesus.

Music of Iceland

In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: A Handbook to Eddic Poetry: Myths and Legends of Early Scandinavia ed.

Institute for Medieval and Early Modern Studies – IMEMS. School. History Today.

This article looks at body images in one of the best-known parts of this work, Hymn 48, which centres on the side wound of Jesus Christ. The hymn describes his crucified and pierced body closely. The poet-speaker wants to bathe in the blood of the Saviour and crawl into his side wound. According to Lutheran tradition, imagery of this kind was supposed to bring the believer closer to God and is based on the belief of receiving the blood and body of Christ, who died for the sins of all men.

Such images correspond to the sacraments of the Church and are meant to be taken literally. But the hymn also shows a strong tendency to understand the Passion in a figurative or allegorical way. This is where the poet can be seen to enter into a creative conversation with the tradition of sacred meditation from the medieval period, as it was to a greater extent based on allegorical readings rather than Post-Reformation or Lutheran literature in general.

Further allegorical readings in Hymn 48 are pointed out in this article. It concludes that the Hymns of the Passion are not only Lutheran in their interpretation of the Passion, but can also be seen to continue the medieval tradition of extensive allegorical readings. This finally shows how the hymn juxtaposes a literal and a figurative or allegorical understanding of the Passion.

Eddic Poetry as World Literature

This paper presents a broader, deeper discusson of how the thing functions in the eddic poems and the legal language and motifs that are used around this concept. It is argued here that eddic poetry can provide some insight into the ideal characteristics of Norse assemblies; indeed, Norse assemblies in real time may have drawn from motifs and concepts in the eddas. A Piece of Horse Liver:

Christopher Sapp’s faculty web page. Christopher Sapp. Search this site. About me. CV. Research “Dating Ynglingatal: Chronological Metrical Developments in Kviðuháttr” “Relative Clause Types in Eddic and Skaldic Poetry.” Germanic Linguistics Annual Conference (GLAC) 23, University of .

Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics. The earliest runic inscriptions date from around AD, the characters were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianisation, by approximately AD in central Europe and AD in northern Europe. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in northern Europe, until the early 20th century, runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars.

The Younger Futhark developed further into the Medieval runes, and the Dalecarlian runes, historically, the runic alphabet is a derivation of the Old Italic scripts of antiquity, with the addition of some innovations. Which variant of the Old Italic family in particular gave rise to the runes is uncertain, suggestions include Raetic, Venetic, Etruscan, or Old Latin as candidates.

At the time, all of these scripts had the same angular letter shapes suited for epigraphy, the process of transmission of the script is unknown. The oldest inscriptions are found in Denmark and northern Germany, not near Italy, a West Germanic hypothesis suggests transmission via Elbe Germanic groups, while a Gothic hypothesis presumes transmission via East Germanic expansion.

Journal of the North Atlantic

Icelandic epic Icelandic literature Icelandic epic literature was written down some two centuries after the island was settled in the 9th century. Icelandic epic can be divided into three categories: They are medieval prose narrative, abounding in paradox and irony. Violence is pervasive, but the style is subdued. Heroism is praised, but moderation is more highly prized. Much is said of fate, but the complex characters seem to control their own destinies.

I prefer the term Poetic Edda, since the bulk of the text is in poetry, while Snorri’s Edda I call Snorra Edda or Prose Edda, as the latter is mostly written in prose (although it is actually a book of poetics– in fact, the name may mean “poetics”).

Essays on Eddic Poetry. Edited by Donata Kick and John D. University of Toronto Press. Essays on Eddic Poetry is a collection by John McKinnell, which will be of interest to scholars and students of Old Norse poetry and Medieval Scandinavian religion, as well as broader medieval Germanic philologists. This reviewer finds it refreshing that essays can be collected and returned to in this manner at a time when many publishers are making previously published essay collections difficult.

As such, McKinnell does seem to have returned to and updated his ideas, demonstrated by the bibliography and references, which are largely up-to-date and include scholarly works and editions from as recently as Some articles read more like sketches and thoughts without strong conclusions, but this reader likes that as the ideas are thought provoking and lead to further conversation. McKinnell has an excellent grasp of Old Norse literature and the Latin literature from the time, giving an interdisciplinary aspect to the chapters.

Finally, McKinnell roots his analyses in philology, but does not stop there; he allows himself to speculate on cultural perspectives as well. McKinnell has done a beautiful job laying out the parallel parts of the poem with Genesis in order to show an influence in the construction of the poem as we have it. This is frustrating for several reasons.

Tag: Medieval Historiography

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. It survives mainly in Icelandic writings, for little medieval vernacular literature remains from Norway, Sweden, or Denmark. The Norwegians who settled Iceland late in the 9th cent.

The scholarship around Eddic poetry has been based on the idea that these poems, which all agree were written down from oral tradition in the 13th-century, can and should be dated to differrent centuries from the 9th-century onwards, based more or less on circular arguments and differences in language, style, form and content.

Stories, Poems, and Literature from the Viking Age 13th century Icelandic manuscript Our knowledge of the Viking people comes from several sources. One valuable source is the literature from the period. Norse people loved stories, and some of the stories and poems they themselves wrote, and that their descendants wrote still survive. Stories about the Norsemen were also written by their contemporaries, including both their trading partners such as the Arabs and the victims of their raids such as the Christian clerics who kept the historical records in Europe.

This section describes written records the Viking-age people left behind. With minor variations, this language was spoken throughout the Norse lands during the Viking period. Old Norse is one of ten branches that make up the Indo-European family of languages which have been spoken throughout Europe and southern Asia for the last years. Old Norse is the root language from which the modern Scandinavian languages descended, and is a close relative of modern English, Dutch, and German.

During the period from AD, rapid linguistic changes occurred, which separated the Norse from other Germanic people on the European continent to the south and west. During the Viking age, language was no barrier to communication across the Norse lands; from Greenland to the Baltic, nearly the same language was spoken throughout.

Tag: Sagas

DuBois said Old Norse religion and other pre-Christian belief systems in Northern Europe must be viewed as “not as isolated, mutually exclusive language-bound entities, but as broad concepts shared across cultural and linguistic lines, conditioned by similar ecological factors and protracted economic and cultural ties”.

Many skaldic verses are preserved in sagas. Of the originally heathen works, we cannot know what changes took place either during oral transmission or as a result of their being recorded by Christians; [38] [39] the sagas of Icelanders , in particular, are now regarded by most scholars as more or less historical fiction rather than as detailed historical records.

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Yggdrasill is revitalized each day as they nourish it with special waters and smear it with clay from the spring to preserve it. Its waters fall upon the earth as dew. It is to them Odin traded his eye for wisdom On one occasion, he hanged himself to a tree, on another he fasted for 40 days and nights and one other he gave his right eye to the guardian Mimir to drink from a horn filled from the well in hopes of gaining cosmic knowledge.

Thor, the god of Thunder The Mighty Thor, who was known primarily as the thunder god was also the Norse god of war and agriculture. He was worshipped as Thunor, or Thonar in ancient England. It was the most potent weapon against the Frost Giants, Fire Trolls and other enemies.

Poetic Edda

Anglo-Saxon England 16 Papers in Mediaeval Studies, 1. Stanford University Press, The Deeds of Beowulf: A Theory of Semiotics.

While the notion that for instance Eddic poetry represents early medieval culture is based upon the idea that oral tradition was stable and faithfully recorded in writing later on, a closer look at the oldest texts written in the vernacular reveals that the authors very consciously and carefully investigated oral tradition and integrated.

In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Myths and Legends of Early Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press, The handbook was a desideratum of research and education in the field of English-speaking and international Scandinavian Studies and related fields. The demand for such a book is evident in A Handbook to Eddic Poetry’s sales.

It was published in September , and the hardback edition was sold out by November. The editors can rightly call this a huge success for themselves as well as for eddic studies in general, which will benefit tremendously from the immense research and work completed by the editors in the past few years, as well as from the contribution of the handbook. The handbook is divided into eighteen main chapters.

The front matter includes lists of illustrations and of contributors, a register of translations and abbreviations of the eddic poems used in the handbook, an introduction written by Carolyne Larrington including acknowledgments and notes about the handbook. Reference material following the chapters includes a consolidated bibliography divided into primary and secondary works, and a reader-friendly index.

Larrington’s introductory remark emphasizes her scholarly appreciation of eddic poetry. At the same time, it can be read as a statement toward the variety of theories and methods presented in the handbook, and of the diverse structures of the essays.

Tucker Bryant – ‘Reflections on Dating a Kleptomaniac’ (CUPSI 2015) RUS SUB