Iranian, Persian Alternative Names The term “Persian” is used as an adjective— especially pertaining to the arts—and to designate the principal language spoken in Iran. The term is often used to designate the larger cultural sphere of Iranian civilization. The terms “Iran” as the designation for the civilization, and “Iranian” as the name for the inhabitants occupying the large plateau located between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf have been in continual use for more than twenty-five hundred years. They are related to the term “Aryan” and it is supposed that the plateau was occupied in prehistoric times by Indo-European peoples from Central Asia. Through many invasions and changes of empire, this essential designation has remained a strong identifying marker for all populations living in this region and the many neighboring territories that fell under its influence due to conquest and expansion. Ancient Greek geographers designated the territory as “Persia” after the territory of Fars where the ancient Achamenian Empire had its seat. Today as a result of migration and conquest, people of Indo-European, Turkic, Arab, and Caucasian origin have some claim to Iranian cultural identity. Many of these peoples reside within the territory of modern Iran.
Schoolgirl, 9, passes through Turkish customs with toy passport identifying her as a UNICORN
According to one version the sun was on the first point of Aries at midday of the day Ohrmazd of the month of Frawardin. All the above-mentioned hypotheses about the Y. This presumption is, however, contrary to our oldest reports of the Iranian calendar by early Muslim astronomers. These reports are expressly to the effect that an intercalation of one month in the Persian year every or years was more or less regularly carried out in pre-Islamic times.
This is based on accepting literally the statements of the Muhammadan astronomers regarding the actual intercalation in the Sasanian period even in the Persian civil year, and at the same time admitting the introduction in Persia of the Egyptian calendar without any change whatsoever except, of course, for the substitution of Persian names for the months. The prevalent opinion, as it is well-known, is that there were two sorts of year in use:
Iranian women can be as aggressive and disinhibited as any other ethnicity and the courtship ritual, contrary to popular opinion, seems to be universal regardless of where you are (personal observation, I don’t claim to be a sociologist or anthropologist).
Classified list of selected loanwords. In some parts of the area the Armenians constituted the majority of the population, in others only its upper classes, but they were everywhere the unifying element that maintained the culture and language of the whole region. Since these Armenian highlands had been subdued by Cyaxares about B. Apart from interruptions of varying duration Armenian was to bear the yoke of the respective Iranian leading power for more than a thousand years, for after the Medes followed the Persian Achaemenids B.
The independence of Armenia from the Seleucids was not gained until B. The Armenian kingdom, whose power and size had been enlarged considerably in particular by king Tigranes I called the Great ca.
Culture of Iran
Colby Phillips Images of Iran, the historic center of Persian culture, evoke a fascinating blend of tradition and independence, the civilizing influence of the past and the sophistication of the modern era. If you are a newcomer to the Persian dating scene, you can feel more at home in this culture by learning some basic rules of Persian social behavior. Get to know Persion culture and customs.
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Jan 14, · 10 Surprising Facts About Iranian Culture. Gordon Gora January 14, Share Stumble 1. Tweet. Pin 2 +1 6. Iranian culture was quite progressive and Westernized. Mut’ahs are incredibly popular among young people and are comparable to dating in the Western world. In Iran, casual dating is not permitted, but having a.
The earliest attested archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at Kashafrud and Ganj Par in northern Iran, confirm a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic. Elam, the most prominent of these civilizations, developed in the southwest alongside those in Mesopotamia , and continued its existence until the emergence of the Iranian empires. The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer , and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC.
Since the earliest second millennium BC, Assyrians settled in swaths of western Iran, and incorporated the region into their territories. Classical antiquity See also: By the second millennium BC, the ancient Iranian peoples arrived in what is now Iran from the Eurasian Steppe ,  rivaling the native settlers of the region. From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the “pre-Iranian” kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire , based in northern Mesopotamia.
The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt. The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of Median ruler Astyages , and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians. Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia , Babylon , Egypt , parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch. Subsequent Achaemenid art and iconography reflect the influence of the new political reality in Mesopotamia.
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It is, of course, possible that there had been indirect contacts even earlier. Under the Han dynasty Former, or Western, Han, b. In the 1st century b. In the 1st-2nd centuries c. There is also evidence that toward the end of the 2nd century the Kushans extended their power north of the Oxus and east into the Tarim basin as far as Lou-lan, near the area from which they had migrated westward nearly years before. An independent embassy from Khotan visited the Han court in , which suggests that by then the Kushans had withdrawn west of the Pamirs Pulleyblank,
The culture of Iran The article uses the words Persian and Iranian interchangeably, Iran: At War with History, by John Limbert, pub. , a book of socio-cultural customs of The Islamic Republic of Iran; George Ghevarghese Crest of the Peacock: .
See Article History Ancient Iran, also known as Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia that is only roughly coterminous with modern Iran. Parsa was the name of an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the region about bc. During the rule of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty — bc , the ancient Greeks first encountered the inhabitants of Persis on the Iranian plateau, when the Achaemenids—natives of Persis—were expanding their political sphere.
The Achaemenids were the dominant dynasty during Greek history until the time of Alexander the Great , and the use of the name Persia was gradually extended by the Greeks and other peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau. The two terms, however, are often used interchangeably when referring to periods preceding the 20th century. This article covers the history of Iran and the Iranian peoples from the prehistoric period up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century ad.
For the history of the succeeding periods, see the article Iran. For a discussion of the religions of ancient Iran, see Iranian religion.
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In his book, Mr. He also examined the implications of such an agreement, and its possible effect on the presidential election. Reagan took the oath of office. Later, as it became known that arms started to flow to Iran via Israel only a few days after the inauguration, suspicions deepened that a secret arms-for-hostages deal had been concluded. Five years later, when the Iran-contra affair revealed what seemed to be a similar swap of hostages for arms delivered through Israel, questions were revived about the election.
In a nice, ironic twist, the phrase ‘October surprise,’ which Vice Presidential candidate George Bush had coined to warn of possible political manipulation of the hostages by Jimmy Carter, began to be applied to the suspected secret activities of the Reagan-Bush campaign In a Madrid hotel in late July , an important Iranian cleric, Mehdi Karrubi, who is now the speaker of the Iranian Parliament, allegedly met with Mr.
The same group met again several weeks later Accounts of these meetings and the exact number of participants vary considerably among the more than 15 sources who claim direct or indirect knowledge of some aspect of them. There is, however, widespread agreement on three points: William Casey was a key participant: At least five of the sources who say they were in Paris in connection with these meetings insist that George Bush was present for at least one meeting.
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However, before the Shah was removed from power, Iranian culture was quite progressive and Westernized. Many Iranians who enjoyed considerable freedoms before never gave up their desire for Western culture and still try to enjoy it behind closed doors. For most of us who perceive Iranians as radical or completely devout, the reality is actually quite shocking. The official punishment for consuming alcohol in Iran is 80 lashes , a barbaric punishment that millions of citizens risk every year just so they can drink.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Iranian Jews claim to be the oldest continuous Jewish community in the world, dating back to the removal to Babylon. Armenians, an ancient Christian people, were imported by Iranian rulers for their artisanry, and Assyrian Christians, who follow a non-Trinitarian Now they realize that Iranian film.
Arranged marriages are far from the main means through which nuptials take place in Iran. Long gone, too, are the days when a nervous young man in his early to mid-twenties would scribble his landline number on a piece of paper, look around to make sure the morality police were not watching, and pass the note to a young woman who had caught his eye. Iran has caught the Internet dating bug big time, and the preferred app du jour is Telegram, an encrypted messaging service that has also become the favored medium for political campaigns.
During recent parliamentary elections, former president Mohammad Khatami used Telegram to urge Iranians to vote for a so-called List of Hope. Now young Iranians are using the app to find companions for a night, or a lifetime. Not long ago, young men and women would ride around in cars at night and cruise for possible assignations.
Then came the Internet. At first, the service was so slow that this writer remembers dialing up and going to the kitchen to put on a kettle for tea while waiting for the inbox to appear.
Old Iranian Calendars
By Josh Meyer But others have grown so frustrated that they have moved on from the counterproliferation effort, taking with them decades of investigative experience and relationships cultivated with other government agencies and cooperating U. And critical momentum has been lost, many say, as the year anniversary of the initiative in October approaches. But like others involved in ongoing U.
Mind Your Manners: Your guide to Iranian customs & etiquette Respecting local customs is an important part of travelling. Nellie Huang shares insights from her trip to this Middle Eastern country.
Mihr ‘Ali Iranian, active c. Portrait of Fath Ali Shah Qajar , Brooklyn Museum A Persian miniature depicting a polo-match, Iran has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture , painting , weaving , pottery , calligraphy , metalworking and stonemasonry. There is also a very vibrant Iranian modern and contemporary art scene.
Iranian art has gone through numerous phases. The unique aesthetics of Iran is evident from the Achaemenid reliefs in Persepolis to the mosaic paintings of Bishapur. The Islamic era brought drastic changes to the styles and practice of the arts, each dynasty with its own particular foci. The Qajarid era was the last stage of classical Persian art, before modernism was imported and suffused into elements of traditionalist schools of aesthetics.
Language and literature[ edit ] See also: Persian language and Persian literature in Western culture Several languages are spoken in different regions of Iran.